Richard I.

Rowan  Lewgalon

Lindlar, Germany

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Richard I. (8 September 1157, Beaumont Palace, Oxford, England – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death.
He also ruled as Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Lord of Ireland, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Anjou, Count of Nantes and Overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period.
He was known as Richard the Lionheart, or Cœur de Lion, even before his accession, because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior.

Richard was brother of William, Count of Poitiers, Henry the Young King, Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany, Leonora of England, Joan Plantagenet and John, Count of Mortain, who succeeded him as king and Matilda of England.
As the third legitimate son of King Henry II of England, he was not expected to ascend the throne.
Richard was the younger maternal half-brother of Marie de Champagne and Alix of France. He is often depicted as having been the favourite son of his mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine.

Richard and King Philip II. of France “ate from the same dish and at night slept in one bed” and had a “passionate love between them”. Having become king, Richard and Philip agreed to go on the Third Crusade together. King Richard landed at Acre on 8 June 1191. He gave his support to his Poitevin vassal Guy of Lusignan, who had brought troops to help him in Cyprus.

In the early evening of 25 March 1199, Richard was walking around the castle perimeter without his chainmail, investigating the progress of sappers on the castle walls. Arrows were occasionally shot from the castle walls, but these were given little attention. One defender in particular was of great amusement to the king — a man standing on the walls, crossbow in one hand, the other clutching a frying pan which he had been using all day as a shield to beat off missiles. He deliberately aimed an arrow at the king, which the king applauded. However, another arrow then struck him in the left shoulder near the neck. He tried to pull this out in the privacy of his tent but failed; a surgeon, called a ‘butcher’ by Hoveden, removed it, ‘carelessly mangling’ the King’s arm in the process. However, the wound swiftly became gangrenous.
Richard died on Tuesday, 6 April 1199 in the arms of his mother; it was later said that “As the day was closing, he ended his earthly day.”
The crossbowman was skinned alive and hanged as soon as Richard died (although Richard had forgiven him…).

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