Aesculus (flower) / Kwiat kasztanowca

MarekM

Cieszyn, Poland

  • Available
    Products
    42
  • Artist
    Notes
  • Artwork Comments 6

Apparel

Cases & Skins

Wall Art

Home Decor

Bags

Stationery

Artist's Description

The Top Ten: Polish Place group / Spring

Aesculus:

For the South African Thoroughbred racehorse see: Horse Chestnut (horse).

The genus Aesculus (pronounced /ˈɛskjʊləs/),1 the buckeyes and Horse Chestnuts, comprises 13-19 species of woody trees and shrubs native to the temperate northern hemisphere, with 6 species native to North America and 7-13 species native to Eurasia; there are also several hybrids. Species are deciduous or evergreen. This genus has traditionally been treated in the ditypic family Hippocastanaceae along with Billia2, but recent phylogenetic analysis of morphological3 and molecular data4 has led to this family, along with the Aceraceae (Maples and Dipteronia), being included in the soapberry family (Sapindaceae).

The North American species are known as buckeyes and the Eurasian species as Horse Chestnuts. Some are also called white chestnut or red chestnut (as in some of the Bach flower remedies). In Britain, they are sometimes called conker trees because of their link with the game of conkers, played with the seeds, also called conkers.

Etymology:

The name Horse Chestnut is also often given as “horse chestnut” or “horsechestnut”. One species very popular in cultivation, the Common Horse Chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum is also often known as just “Horse Chestnut”. Linnaeus named the genus Aesculus after the Roman name for an edible acorn. The use of the term “horse” refers to their strength or inedibility, and does not here refer to their fitness as fodder for horses, except in folk etymology. The name buckeye derives from the resemblance of the seed to the brown eye of a buck (male deer), and Horse Chestnut from the external resemblance of the seed to a chestnut, but being inedible. The buckeye blooms in summer and the Horse Chestnut in late spring.

Description:

Aesculus are woody plants from 4 to 36m tall (depending on species), and have stout shoots with resinous, often sticky, buds; opposite, palmately divided leaves, often very large (to 65 cm across in the Japanese Horse Chestnut Aesculus turbinata). Flowers showy, insect-pollinated, with four or five petals fused into a lobed corolla tube, arranged in a panicle inflorescence. Flowering starts after 80–110 growing degree days. The fruit matures to a capsule 2–5 cm diameter, usually globose with 1-3 seeds (often erroneously called nuts) per capsule, more than 2 results in seeds being flat on one side; the point of attachment of the seed in the capsule (hilum) shows as a large circular whitish scar. The capsule epidermis has “spines” (botanically: prickles) in some species, other capsules are warty or smooth; capsule splits into three sections to release the seeds.

Cultivation:

The most familiar member of the genus worldwide is the Common Horse Chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum, native to a small area of the Balkans in southeast Europe, but widely cultivated throughout the temperate world. The yellow buckeye Aesculus flava (syn. A. octandra) is also a valuable ornamental tree with yellow flowers, but is less widely planted. Among the smaller species, the bottlebrush buckeye Aesculus parviflora also makes a very interesting and unusual flowering shrub. Several other members of the genus are used as ornamentals, and several horticultural hybrids have also been developed, most notably the red Horse Chestnut Aesculus × carnea, a hybrid between A. hippocastanum and A. pavia.

They are generally fairly problem-free, though a recently discovered leaf-mining moth Cameraria ohridella is currently causing major problems in much of Europe, causing premature leaf fall which looks very unattractive. The symptoms (brown blotches on the leaves) can be confused with damage caused by the leaf fungus Guignardia aesculi, which is also very common but usually less serious. Common Horse Chestnut is also used as a food plant by the sycamore, another species of moth.

Another disease in parts of North West Europe and North America is bleeding canker.

Uses:

The nuts contain high concentrations of a saponin-class toxin called aesculin, which is toxic to many animals including humans because it causes hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells). The saponin can be eliminated by leaching the pulverized nuts in multiple changes of boiling water, to yield a wholesome starchy porridge once important to some Native American peoples. Some animals, notably deer and squirrels, are resistant to the toxins and can eat the nuts directly. An interesting side-note is that aesculin is a natural pH indicator which, when extracted turns from colorless to fluorescent blue under UV light in an acidic pH range.

California buckeye Aesculus californica is known to cause poisoning of honeybees from toxic nectar (native bee species not being affected). Other buckeye species are thought to have the same effect, but the toxins are diluted because the trees are not usually abundant enough in any one area.[citation needed]

The wood is very pale whitish-brown, fairly soft and little-used. Uses include cheap furniture, boxes and firewood.[citation needed]

In Britain and Ireland the game of conkers remains a common childhood pastime.

In some cultures, the buckeye tree is thought to bring good luck.

The Mexican buckeye is related to Aesculus, but is in a separate genus, Ungnadia.

In the TV show Grow Your Own Drugs, a recipe is provided for making horse chestnuts into a lotion to help with varicose veins.

Extractives of the seeds have been shown to be useful for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency.

Source text: Wikipedia

Kasztanowiec:

Kasztanowiec (Aesculus L.) – rodzaj drzew, rzadziej krzewów należących do rodziny kasztanowcowatych (Hippocastanaceae). Obejmuje ok. 25 gatunków pochodzących z południowo-wschodniej Europy, Ameryki Północnej oraz Azji wschodniej. W Polsce wszystkie uprawiane gatunki są sztucznie introdukowane przez człowieka.

Morfologia

Gatunkiem typowym jest Aesculus hippocastanum L.1.

Pokrój
Dorastają nawet do 40 m wysokości.
Pąki
Duże, charakterystyczne dla całego rodzaju, kleiste lub suche.
Liście
Ustawione naprzeciwlegle, dłoniastodzielne, złożone z 5–9 listków na długich ogonkach.
Kwiaty
Obupłciowe lub rozdzielnopłciowe w tym samym kwiatostanie, zazwyczaj zebrane w okazałe, wyprostowane wiechy o wys. do 30 cm, w kolorze białym, żółtawym, różowym lub czerwonym. Kwiat składa się 4–5 płatków i tyluż działek kielicha. Płatki opatrzone paznokciem. Pręcików jest 5–9, słupek jeden, górny.
Owoc
Torebka gładka lub kolczasta, rozpadająca się po dojrzeniu na trzy części. Nasiona bardzo duże, ciemnobrązowe z kolistym znacznikiem (hilum), popularnie nazywane “kasztanami”.
Wymagania
Kasztanowce lubią gleby żyzne, głębokie o uregulowanych stosunkach wodnych. Na słabszych rosną równie dobrze, lecz wolniej.
Rośliny trujące
Owoce zawierają związki z grupy saponin, powodujące hemolizę czerwonych krwinek.

Zastosowanie

  • Rośliny ozdobne: bardzo cenne drzewa parkowe i alejowe oraz do nasadzeń przydrożnych. Trochę kłopotliwe ze względu na jesienne zaśmiecanie otoczenia.
  • Rośliny lecznicze: stosowane w medycynie ludowej. Badaniem zastosowania w medycynie i farmacji zajmuje się m.in. dr Krzysztof Kmieć. Wyciąg z kasztanów stosowany jest w homeopatii.

Systematyka

Synonimy taksonom.1

Esculus L., Hippocastanum Mill., Pawia O. Kuntze

Pozycja w systemie Reveala

Gromada okrytonasienne (Magnoliophyta Cronquist), podgromada Magnoliophytina Frohne & U. Jensen ex Reveal, klasa Rosopsida Batsch, podklasa różowe (Rosidae Takht.), nadrząd Rutanae Takht., rząd mydleńcowce (Sapindales Dumort.), rodzina kasztanowcowate (Hippocastanaceae DC.), plemię Aesculeae Baill., rodzaj kasztanowiec (Aesculus L.)2

Gatunki flory Polski3

  • kasztanowiec czerwony (Aesculus carnea Hayne) – gatunek uprawiany
  • kasztanowiec drobnokwiatowy (Aesculus parviflora Walt.) – gatunek uprawiany
  • kasztanowiec francuski (Aesculus x plantierensis André) – gatunek uprawiany
  • kasztanowiec gładki (Aesculus glabra Willd.) – gatunek uprawiany
  • kasztanowiec japoński (Aesculus turbinata Blume) – gatunek uprawiany
  • kasztanowiec krwisty (Aesculus pavia L.) – gatunek uprawiany
  • kasztanowiec zwyczajny (Aesculus hippocastanum L.)
  • kasztanowiec żółty (Aesculus flava Sol. ex Hope) – antropofit zadomowiony

Pozostałe gatunki

  • kasztanowiec indyjski
  • kasztanowiec plamisty (A. neglecta Lindl.)
  • Aesculus arguta Buckl. (syn. A. glabra var. arguta)
  • Aesculus austrina Small (syn. A. pavia var. pavia)
  • Aesculus californica (Spach) Nutt.
  • Aesculus discolor Pursh
  • Aesculus dupontii Sarg. (syn. A. ×worlitzensis)
  • Aesculus flava Ait.
  • Aesculus georgiana Sarg. (syn. A. sylvatica Bartr.)
  • Aesculus splendens Sarg. (syn. A. pavia var. pavia)
  • Aesculus ×bushii Schneid. (syn. A. ×mississippiensis Sarg.)
  • Aesculus ×glaucescens Sarg.
  • Aesculus ×harbisonii Sarg. (syn. A. ×mutabilis (Spach) Scheele)
  • Aesculus ×hybrida DC.
  • Aesculus ×marylandica Booth ex Kirchn.
  • Aesculus ×worlitzensis Koehne

Tekst źródłowy: Wikipedia

All Products Tags

flower

Artwork Comments

  • GOSIA GRZYBEK
  • MarekM
  • Rainy
  • MarekM
  • joyousmoon
  • MarekM
desktop tablet-landscape content-width tablet-portrait workstream-4-across phone-landscape phone-portrait
desktop tablet-landscape content-width tablet-portrait workstream-4-across phone-landscape phone-portrait

10% off

for joining the Redbubble mailing list

Receive exclusive deals and awesome artist news and content right to your inbox. Free for your convenience.