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Drosophila melanogaster (Greek for dark-bellied dew lover: δρόσος = dew, φίλος = intimate friend, lover, μέλας = dark-coloured, γαστήρ = belly) is a two-winged insect that belongs to the Diptera, the order of the flies.
The species is commonly known as the common fruit fly or vinegar fly, and is one of the most commonly used model organisms in biology, including studies in genetics, physiology and life history evolution. Flies belonging to the family Tephritidae are also called fruit flies, which can lead to confusion, especially in Australia where the term fruit fly refers to the Tephritidae, an economic pest in fruit production.