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Question Mark ~ Polygonia interrogationis (Fabricius, 1798)
Canon EOS 30D

Family: Brush-footed Butterflies (Nymphalidae)

Subfamily: True Brushfoots (Nymphalinae)

Identification: Forewing hooked; upperside is red-orange with black spots. Upperside hindwing of summer form is mostly black with a short tail; that of winter form has much orange and a longer, violet-tipped tail. Underside is light brown; hindwing with pearly white question mark in center.

Life history: Males find females by perching on leaves or tree trunks in the afternoon, flying to chase other insects and even birds. Females lay eggs singly or stacked under leaves of plants that are usually not the hosts. Caterpillars must find a host plant; they then eat leaves and live alone. Adults of the winter form hibernate; some staying in the north, many migrating to the south.

Flight: Overwintered adults fly and lay eggs in the spring until the end of May. The summer form emerges and flies from May-September, laying eggs that develop into the winter form; these adults appear in late August and spend the winter in various shelters.

Wing span: 2 1/4 – 3 inches (5.7 – 7.6 cm).

Caterpillar hosts: American elm (Ulmus americanus), red elm (Ulmus rubra), hackberry (Celtis), Japanese hop (Humulus japonicus), nettles (Urtica), and false nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica).

Adult food: Rotting fruit, tree sap, dung, carrion. Only when these are unavailable do Question Marks visit flowers such as common milkweed, aster, and sweet pepperbush.

Habitat: Wooded areas with some open space, city parks, suburbs, fencerows.

Range: Southern Canada and all of the eastern United States except peninsular Florida, west to the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains, south to southern Arizona and Mexico.




  • kalaryder
    kalaryderalmost 6 years ago

    Pretty :)

  • kathy s gillentine
    kathy s gillen...almost 6 years ago

    wonderful capture

  • Rosemaree
    Rosemareealmost 6 years ago

    Beautiful image

  • Jennifer Vickers
    Jennifer Vickersalmost 6 years ago


  • dc witmer
    dc witmeralmost 6 years ago

    nice closeup

  • Digitalbcon
    Digitalbconalmost 6 years ago

    Stunning capture!! Great POV and composition!! I really appreciate the additional information!! It is so useful in identifying these beauties!

  • Bonnie T.  Barry
    Bonnie T. Barryalmost 6 years ago

    What a providential moment, a gorgeous butterfly sunning itself on purple blossoms set against an azure sky! A perfect coming together of elements; so glad you were there to immortalize the moment. Just perfect!

  • Phillip M. Burrow
    Phillip M. Burrowalmost 5 years ago

    Wonderful image!

  • Brenda Burnett
    Brenda Burnettalmost 5 years ago

    I love Butterflies. You do wonderful work. Brenda

  • Kymie
    Kymiealmost 5 years ago

    Your work really is incredible – this is no exception :-)

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