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This design is from my old account and represents the principles and cognitive processes involved in scientific method.
The knotwork represents the evidence that needs to be unraveled.
The tree at the centre of the spiral represents Truth.
The three circles at each corner of the tree triangle represent the cognitive processes involved: logic, intuition and bottom-up processing.
The five circles arranged on the spiral represent the five principles of scientific method: Empiricism, Scepticism, Tentativeness, Openness, and Anti-authoritarianism, all feeding the tree of Truthful knowledge.
Below I have transcribed part of a lecture that my first year research methodology lecturer Andrew Tilley gave to us on the subject.
From Tilley AJ 1999
The Science of Psychology Lecture
Science is a PROCESS of acquiring knowledge and a means of trying to understand reality and reveal the truth.
Science is the OBJECTIVE, SYSTEMATIC process of DISCOVERING, DESCRIBING, ANALYSING and ultimately EXPLAINING phenomena and events and relationships between variables.
Science is based on the assumption that a) everything is essentially ordered and organised rather than random or chaotic; & b) based upon CAUSE AND EFFECT. ie based upon reliable, consistent predictable, or lawful relationships between variables.
Principles of Science
1 Empiricism. This principle means that evidence about reality must be OBJECTIVE AND OBSERVABLE. What you think is true must be OBJECTIVELY DEMONSTRABLE to the most severe critic. Non-empirical evidence is inadmissible. NOTHING IS TAKEN AS SELF EVIDENT. Scientific knowledge must be based upon empirical observation. Logic, reason , common sense and intuition are all useful and necessary but insufficient to produce or provide knowledge.
2 Scepticism. This principle is all about checking and questioning. Science is sceptical and critical. It insists upon being able to check and question evidence and explanation. How good is the evidence? Is the evidence REPRODUCIBLE? Is the evidence sufficient to support the explanation? Is the explanation sufficient account for the evidence? Is there a simpler, or better or alternate explanation. Science maintains that all NATURAL events and phenomena have NATURAL causes. Science is all that is necessary to explain everything.
3 Tentativeness. Science offers only tentative or approximate explanations that are relative to the existing state of scientific knowledge, which can change. Nothing is written in stone, nothing is sacred. Science always allows new and better theories to replace old theories if they are found wanting in the face of the empirical evidence.
4 Openness. Science is open and public. Scientific research is published to INFORM and to allow and encourage others to question and check the validity and reliability of the research.
5 Anti-authoritarian. Being empirical and sceptical means that science is naturally anti-authoritarian. Science REJECTS AND RECOILS from accepting on faith, without questioning, the statements or pronouncements of any text or authority on the nature of reality. Nothing is accepted unless it is supported by empirical evidence. Acceptance of any position is tentative and open to change or modification if a better explanation for the existing evidence, or if new evidence comes to light.
My note: (In other words Science is not a belief system like religion. It is a system for uncovering facts so that people can form their beliefs about the world out of truths, not myths).