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The Arch of Constantine (Italian: Arco di Costantino) is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill.

It was erected to commemorate Constantine I’s victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge on October 28, 312. Dedicated in 315, it is the latest of the existing triumphal arches in Rome, from which it differs by spolia, the extensive re-use of parts of earlier buildings.

The arch is 21 m high, 25.9 m wide and 7.4 m deep. It has three archways, the central one being 11.5 m high and 6.5 m wide, the lateral archways 7.4 m by 3.4 m each.
detail 1

detail 2

detail 3


The top (called attic) is brickwork reveted with marble. A staircase formed in the thickness of the arch is entered from a door at some height from the ground, in the end towards the Palatine Hill.

The general design with a main part structured by detached columns and an attic with the main inscription above is modelled after the example of the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Roman Forum.

It has been suggested that the lower part of the arch is re-used from an older monument, probably from the times of the emperor Hadrian (Conforto et al., 2001; for a defence of the view that the whole arch was constructed in the 4th century, see Pensabene & Panella).

The arch spans the Via Triumphalis, the way taken by the emperors when they entered the city in triumph. This route started at the Campus Martius, led through the Circus Maximus and around the Palatine Hill; immediately after the Arch of Constantine, the procession would turn left at the Meta Sudans and march along the Via Sacra to the Forum Romanum and on to the Capitoline Hill, passing both the Arches of Titus and Septimius Severus.
During the Middle Ages, the Arch of Constantine was incorporated into one of the family strongholds of ancient Rome. Works of restoration were first carried out in the 18th century; the last excavations have taken place in the late 1990s, just before the Great Jubilee of 2000.
The arch served as the finish line for the marathon athletic event for the 1960 Summer Olympic.



The main inscription would originally have been of bronze letters. It can still be read easily; only the recesses in which the letters sat, and their attachment holes, remain. It reads thus, identically on both sides:

To the Emperor Caesar Flavius Constantinus, the greatest, pious, and blessed Augustus: because he, inspired by the divine, and by the greatness of his mind, has delivered the state from the tyrant and all of his followers at the same time, with his army and just force of arms, the Senate and People of Rome have dedicated this arch, decorated with triumphs.

The words instinctu divinitatis (“inspired by the divine”) have been greatly commented on. They are usually read as sign of Constantine’s shifting religious affiliation: The Christian tradition, most notably Lactantius and Eusebius of Caesarea, relate the story of a vision of God to Constantine during the campaign, and that he was victorious in the sign of the cross at the Milvian Bridge.

The official documents (esp. coins) still prominently display the Sun god until 324, while Constantine started to support the Christian church from 312 on. In this situation, the vague wording of the inscription can be seen as the attempt to please all possible readers, being deliberately ambiguous, and acceptable to both pagans and Christians.

As was customary, the vanquished enemy is not mentioned by name, but only referred to as “the tyrant”, drawing on the notion of the rightful killing of a tyrannical ruler; together with the image of the “just war”, it serves as justification of Constantine’s civil war against his co-emperor Maxentius.

Two short inscriptions on the inside of the central archway transport a similar message: Constantine came not as conqueror, but freed Rome from occupation:

LIBERATORI VRBIS (liberator of the city) —
FUNDATORI QVIETIS (founder of peace)

Over each of the small archways, inscriptions read:


They give a hint on the date of the arch: “Solemn vows for the 10th anniversary – for the 20th anniversary” and “as for the 10th, so for the 20th anniversary”.

Both refer to Constantine’s decennalia, i.e. the 10th anniversary of his reign (counted from 306), which he celebrated in Rome in the summer of 315. It can be assumed that the arch honouring his victory was inaugurated during his stay in the city.



arch, architecture, rome, tereza, italy, constantin, victory

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  • terezadelpilar~ art & architecture
    terezadelpilar...about 3 years ago

  • Béla Török
    Béla Törökabout 3 years ago

    Fabulous work, dear Tereza!

  • Thank you very much Béla:)

    – terezadelpilar~ art & architecture

  • Alex Gardiner
    Alex Gardinerabout 3 years ago

    Make a great jigsaw puzzle Bonny Lass.. Beautiful work.
    The Auld Yin.

  • yes it does:))) thanks so much dear Alex:) Good to see you again:)

    – terezadelpilar~ art & architecture

  • Lyn Evans
    Lyn Evansabout 3 years ago

    Fantastic editing Teresa, what a fabulous image.

  • thanks sweet Lyn:))))

    – terezadelpilar~ art & architecture

  • Kim McClain Gregal
    Kim McClain Gr...about 3 years ago


  • thank you dear Kim:))

    – terezadelpilar~ art & architecture

  • F.A. Moore
    F.A. Mooreabout 3 years ago

    MUST BE VIEWED LARGE – just wanted to add that note for you Tereza, as the details get lost on the small one due to the sharpening. In large view, as this image is intended to be seen, the details are clear and incredible! I like seeing the arch full-on, like this, so that the inscriptions can be read or viewed, just as one would see them entering the city. Beautiful scene and shot of ancient architecture.

  • I agree with you completely Frannie:) thnaks for your note:)
    The details are simply amazing. I might add them (cropped) on the side bar later on.

    – terezadelpilar~ art & architecture

  • John Schneider
    John Schneiderabout 3 years ago

    What a superb rendition, fantastic image!! – John

  • wow, thanks dear John:)))

    – terezadelpilar~ art & architecture

  • SandraRos
    SandraRosabout 3 years ago

    WOOOW WHEEE !!! Great shot and it looks brilliant in HDR. You have turned it into a real work of art

  • Thank you sweet Sandra;) so good to see you!

    – terezadelpilar~ art & architecture

  • billyboy
    billyboyabout 3 years ago

    Wow Tereza, I just love the way the detail pops out in this take.
    Totally full-on Roman Empire on acid !!!

  • Lol :))) Billy loved that expression of yours:)))
    A year would not be enough to see it all in Rome….
    Thanks so much for your visit dear Billy:)

    – terezadelpilar~ art & architecture

  • Janone
    Janoneabout 3 years ago

    Fantastic work, Thereza.!
    I do like this style very much.

  • Thanks so much:))

    – terezadelpilar~ art & architecture

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