This semi-circular structure, known also as the Small Theatre. According to an inscription unearthed, it was built as a bouleuterion (council chamber) around 150 A.D. by Publius Vedius Antonius and his wife FlaviaPapiana. They were member of a distinguished family in Ephesus.
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The original structure was provided with coverings and with a capacity of 1400 seated spectators, alternatively served as bouleuterion and as a small covered theatre. The structure consist of three main sections which are found in all other theatres: the cavea (auditorium), the orchestra (place of action for the actors) and the skene (the stage building). The semi,circular cavea is divided in two by a diazoma (horizontal passage separating the rows of seats) in the center. The marble seats exhibit quality craftsmanship. Most probably, the skene was two-storeyed. There is a narrow marble podium just in front of the skene where five doors open onto the pedium. The door in the middle is taller and wider than the others. The orchestra is semi-circular. The fact that there are no gutters for rain water in the center of the orchestra indicates that the Odeion was roofed. The structure was used as an Odeon during concerts and as a bouleterion during the meetings of the boule.