A circus is a traveling company of performers including acrobats, clowns, trained animals, hula hoopers… The circus have had its origin in Ancient Rome, where the circus was an open-air stadium where chariot and horse races and other public exhibitions were held. Briton Philip Astley is the father of the modern circus, establishing permanent and travelling circuses in Britain and Europe in the late 18th century. The Russian circus underwent an interesting development in 1919 when Vladimir Lenin nationalised the circus and in 1927 the Moscow Circus School was established. When the Russian companies began touring in the 1950s, their performances were impressive and had a significant impact on the way contemporary circus developed as a performing art. In the 1970s, the circus began to lose popularity as people became more interested in animal rights and alternative forms of entertainment. Common acts include a variety of acrobatics and gymnastics including tightrope walking, trapeze and floor routines, the combination of juggling and gymnastics is called equilibristics and include acts like plate spinning.Clowns are common to most circuses.Daredevil stunt acts and sideshow acts are parts of circus acts, including human cannonball, chapeaugraphy, fire eating, breathing and dancing, knife throwing, magic shows, sword swallowing or strongman.