Cleopatra VII Philopator, known to history as Cleopatra, was the last pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. She was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, a family of Greek origin that ruled Egypt after Alexander the Great’s death during the Hellenistic period.
Born: 69 BC (Month: October), Alexandria
Died: August 12, 30 BC, Alexandria
Full name: Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator
Siblings: Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator, Arsinoe IV of Egypt, Ptolemy XIV of Egypt, Berenice IV of Egypt
Children: Caesarion, Cleopatra Selene, Alexander Helios, Ptolemy Philadelphus
Parents: Ptolemy XII Auletes, Cleopatra V of Egypt
According to Egyptian law, Cleopatra was forced to have a consort, who was either a brother or a son, no matter what age, throughout her reign. She was married to her younger brother Ptolemy XIII when he was twelve, however she soon dropped his name from any official documents regardless of the Ptolemaic insistence that the male presence be first among co-rulers. She also had her own portrait and name on coins of that time, ignoring her brother’s. When Cleopatra became co-regent, her world was crumbling down around her. Cyprus, Coele-Syria and Cyrenaica were gone. There was anarchy abroad and famine at home. Cleopatra was a strong-willed Macedonian queen who was brilliant and dreamed of a greater world empire. She almost achieved it. Whether her way of getting it done was for her own desires or for the pursuit of power will never be known for certain. However, like many Hellenistic queens, she was passionate but not promiscuous. As far as we know, she had no other lovers other than Caesar and Antony. Many believe that she did what she felt was necessary to try to save Alexandria, whatever the price.
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