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Nietzsche Mix 2 - by Rev. Shakes

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Rev. Shakes Spear

Joined September 2011

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PREFACE
(Nov. 1887-March 1888)
1
Of what is great one must either be silent or speak with greatness.
With greatness-that .J)leans cynically and with innocence.
2
What I relate is the history of the next two centuries. I
describe what is coming, what can no longer come differently:
the advent of nihilism. This history can be related even now; for
necessity itself is at work here. This future speaks even now in
a hundred signs, this destiny announces itself everywhere; for
this music of the future all ears are cocked even now. For some
time now, our whole European culture has been moving as toward
a catastrophe, with a tortured tension that is growing from decade
to decade: restlessly, violently, headlong, like a river that wants
to reach the end, that no longer reflects, that is afraid to reflect.
3
He that speaks here, conversely, has done nothing so far
but reflect: a philosopher and solitary by instinct, who has found
his advantage in standing aside and outside, in patience, in procrastination,
in staying behind; as a spirit of daring and experiment
that has already lost its way once in every labyrinth of the future;
as a soothsayer-bird spirit who looks back when relating what will
come; as the first perfect nihilist of Europe who, however, has
even now lived through the whole of nihilism, to the end, leaving
it behind, outside himself.
4
For one should make no mistake about the meaning of the
title that this gospel of the future wants to bear. “The Will to
Power: Attempt at a Revaluation of All Values”-in this formulation
a countermovement finds expression, regarding both principle
and task; a movement that in some future will take the place of
this perfect nihilism-but presupposes it, logically and psychologi4
PREFACE
cally. and certainly can come only after and out of it. For why
has the advent of nihilism become necessary? Because the values
we have had hitherto thus draw their final consequence; because
nihilism represents the ultimate logical conclusion of our great
values and ideals-because we must experience nihilism before
we can find out what value these “values” really had.- We require,
sometime, new values.

“Christianity” has become something fundamentally different
from what its founder did and desired. It is the great anti-pagan
movement of antiquity, formulated through the employment of the
life, teaching and “words” of the founder of Christianity but interpreted
in an absolutely arbitrary way after the pattern of fundamentally
different needs: translated into the language of every
already existing subterranean religion-
It is the rise of pessimism (-while Jesus wanted to bring
peace and the happiness of lambs): and moreover the pessimism
of the weak, the inferior, the suffering, the oppressed.
Its mortal enemy is (1) power in character, spirit and taste;
“worldliness”; (2) classical “happiness,” the noble levity and skepticism,
the hard pride, the eccentric intemperance and the cool self-sufficiency
of the sage, Greek refinement in gesture, word, and
form. Its mortal enemy is the Roman just as much as the Greek.
Attempt by anti-paganism to found and make itself possible
philosophically: predilection for the ambiguous figures of the old
culture, above all for Plato, that instinctive Semite and anti-Hellene
also for Stoicism, which is essentially the work of Semites
(
“dignity” as strictness, law, virtue as greatness, self-responsibility,
authority, as supreme sovereignty over one’s own person this
is Semitic. The Stoic is an Arabian sheik wrapped in Greek
togas and concepts).
1. Nihilism stands at the door: whence comes this uncanniest
of all guests? Point of departure: it is an error to consider
“social distress” or “physiological degeneration” or, worse, corruption,
as the cause of nihilism. Ours is the most decent and compassionate
age. Distress, whether of the soul, body, or intellect,
cannot of itself give birth to nihilism (Le., the radical repudiation
of value, meaning, and desirability). Such distress always permits
a variety of interpretations. Rather: it is in one particular interpretation,
the Christian-moral one, that nihilism is rooted.
2. The end of Christianity-at the hands of its own morality
(which cannot be replaced), which turns against the Christian
God (the sense of truthfulness, developed highly by Christianity,
is nauseated by the falseness and mendaciousness of all Christian
interpretations of the world and of history; rebound from “God
is truth” to the fanatical faith “All is false”; Buddhism of action-).
3. Skepticism regarding morality is what is decisive. The end
of the moral interpretation of the world, which no longer has any
sanction after it has tried to escape into some beyond, leads to
nihilism. “Everything lacks meaning” (the untenability of one interpretation
of the world, upon which a tremendous amount of energy
has been lavished, awakens the suspicion that all interpretations
of the world are false). Buddhistic tendency, yearning for Nothing.
(Indian Buddhism is not the culmination of a thoroughly moralistic
development; its nihilism is therefore full of morality that is not
overcome: existence as punishment, existence construed as error,
error thus as a punishment-a moral valuation.) Philosophical
attempts to overcome the “moral God” (Hegel, pantheism). Overcoming
popular ideals: the sage; (he saint; the poet. The antagonism
of “true” and “beautiful” and “good”-
4. Against “meaninglessness” on the one hand, against moral
value judgments on the other: to what extent has all science and
philosophy so far been influenced by moral judgments? and won’t
this net us the hostility of science? Or an antiscientific mentality?
Critique of Spinozism. Residues of Christian value judgments are
found everywhere in socialistic and positivistic systems. A critique
of Christian morality is still lacking.
8 THE WILL TO POWER
5. The nihilistic consequences of contemporary natural
science (together with its attempts to escape into some beyond).
The industry of its pursuit eventually leads to self-disintegration,
opposition, an antiscientific mentality. Since Copernicus man has
been rolling from the center toward X.’
6. The nihilistic consequences of the ways of thinking in
politics and economics, where all “principles” are practically histrionic:
the air of mediocrity, wretchedness, dishonesty, etc. Nationalism.
Anarchism, etc. Punishment. The redeeming class and
human being are lacking-the justifiers-
7. The nihilistic consequences of historiography and of the
Upractical historians," i.e., the romantics. The position of art:
its position in the modern world absolutely lacking in originality.
Its decline into gloom. Goethe’s aIlegedly Olympian stance.
8. Art and the preparation of nihilism: romanticism (the
conclusion of Wagner’s Nibelungen).

  • Cf. Genealogy of Morals, third essay, section 25.
    1. NIHILISM
    2 (Spring-FaU1887)1
    What does nihilism mean? That the highest values devaluate
    themselves. The aim is lacking; “why?” finds no answer.
    3 (Spring-Fall 1887)2
    Radical nihilism is the conviction of an absolute untenability
    of existence when it comes to the highest values one recognizes;
    plus the realization that we lack the least right to posit a beyond
    or an in-itself of things that might be “divine” or morality incarnate.
    This realization is a consequence of the cultivation of “truthfulness”
    thus itself a consequence of the faith in morality.
    4 (June 10, 1887)3
    What were the advantages of the Christian moral hypothesis?
    1. It granted man an absolute value, as opposed to his smallness
    and accidental occurrence in the flux of becoming and passing
    away.
    1 According to Erich Podach. notes 2, 13, 22, and 23 form a single note
    in Nietzsche’s notebooks-not in that order. The note begins:
    “Nihilism as a normal conditioll. Nihilism: the aim is lacking; ‘why?’
    finds no answer. What does nihilism mean? ThaI the highest values devaluate
    themselves.
    “It is ambiguous:
    “A. Nihilism as a sign of increased power of the spirit: active
    nihilism.
    “It can be a sign of strength: .. ,”
    (See Podach Ein Blick in Notizbiicher Nielzsches, Heidelberg, Wolfgang
    Rothe, 1963, pp. 205 /. In Schlechta’s edition the note appears in four parts,
    in the same sequence as in the standard editions: 2, 13, 22, and 23. For
    further discussion of Podach and Schlechta see Kaufmann, “Nietzsche in
    the Light of his Suppressed Manuscripts,” in Journal of the History of
    Philosophy, October 1964 (11.2), pp. 205-225.
    2 In Nietzsche’s manuscript this note is marked “For the Plan” (Zum
    Plane). See Werke, Grossoktav edition, XVI (1911), p. 497. In subsequent
    references this volume is cited as “1911.”
    3 In the manuscript this note is number 1 under the heading “European
    Nihilism. Lenzer Heide [Heath of Lenz], June 10, 1887”; and it is followed
    by note 5, which Nietzsche superscribed 2; note 114, which he numbered 3;
    and note 55, whose thirteen sections Nietzsche numbered 4 through 16. See
    1911, p. 497.
    10 THE WILL TO POWER
    2. It served the advocates of God insofar as it conceded to
    the world, in spite of suffering and evil, the character of perfection

    including “freedom”: evil appeared full of meaning.
    3. It posited that man had a knowledge of absolute values
    and thus adequate knowledge precisely regarding what is most
    important.
    4. It prevented man from despising himself as man, from
    taking sides against life; from despairing of knowledge: it was a
    means oj preservation.
    In sum: morality was the great antidote against practical
    and theoretical nihilism.
    5 (June 10, 1887)’
    But among the forces cultivated by morality was truthfulness:
    this eventually turned against morality, discovered its teleology, its
    partial perspective-and now the recognition of this inveterate
    mendaciousness that one despairs of shedding becomes a stimulant.
    Now we discover in ourselves needs implanted by centuries of
    moral interpretation-needs that now appear to us as needs for
    untruth; on the other hand, the value for which we endure life
    seems to hinge on these needs. This antagonism-not to esteem
    what we know, and not to be allowed any longer to esteem the lies
    we shoUld like to tell ourselves-results in a process of dissolution.
    6 (Spring-Fall 1887)
    This is the antinomy:
    Insofar as we believe in morality we pass sentence on existence.
    7 (Nov. 1887-March 1888)
    The supreme values in whose service man should live, especially
    when they were very hard on him and exacted a high
    price-these social values were erected over man to strengthen
    their voice, as if they were commands of God, as “reality,” as the
    “true” world, as a hope and future world. Now that the shabby
    origin of these values is becoming clear, the universe seems to
    4 See footnote to section 4 above.
    nOOK ONE: European Nihilism 11
    have lost value, seems “meaningless”-but that is only a transitional
    stage.
    8 (1883-1888)
    The nihilistic consequence (the belief in valuelessness) as a
    consequence of moral valuation: everything egoistic has come to
    disgust us (even though we realize the impossibility of the unegoistic);
    what is necessary has come to disgust us (even thongh
    we realize the impossibility of any liberum arbitrium’ or “intelligible
    freedom”). We see that we cannot reach the sphere in
    which we have placed onr values; but this does not by any means
    confer any value on that other sphere in which we live: on the
    contrary, we are weary because we have lost the main stimulus.
    “In vain so far!”
    9 (Spring-Fall 1887)
    Pessimism as a preliminary form of nihilism.
    10 (Spring-Fall 1887)
    Pessimism as strength-in what? in the energy of its logic,
    as anarchism and nihilism, as analytic.
    Pessimism as decline-in what? as growing effeteness, as a
    sort of cosmopolitan fingering, as {(tout comprendre"6 and historicism.
    The critical tension: the extremes appear and become predominant.
    11 (Spring-Fall 1887, rev. Spring-Fall 1888)
    The logic of pessimism down to ultimate nihilism: what is
    at work in it? The idea of valuelessness, meaninglessness: to what
    extent moral valuations hide behind all other high values.
    Conclusion: Moral value judgments are ways of passing
    sentence, negations; morality is a way of turning one’s back on
    the will to existence.
    Problem: But what is morality?
    fi Free will.
    e Understanding ever) thing.
    12 THE WILL TO POWER
    12 (Nov. 1887-March 1888)
    Decline of Cosmological Values
    ( A )
    Nihilism as a psychological state will have to be reached,
    first, when we have sought a “meaning” in all events that is not
    there: so the seeker eventually becomes discouraged. Nihilism,
    then, is the recognition of the long waste of strength, the agony
    of the “in vain,” insecurity, the lack of any opportunity to recover
    and to regain composure—being ashamed in front of oneself, as
    if one had deceived oneself all too long.- This meaning could
    have been: the “fulfillment” of some highest ethical canon in all
    events, the moral world order; or the growth of love and harmony
    in the intercourse of beings; or the gradual approximation of a
    state of universal happiness; or even the development toward a
    state of universal annihilation-any goal at least constitutes some
    meaning. What all these notions have in common is that something
    is to be achieved through the process-and now one realizes
    that becoming aims at nothing and achieves nolhing.- Thus,
    disappointment regarding an alleged aim of becoming as a cause
    of nihilism: whether regarding a specific aim or, universalized, the
    realization that all previous hypotheses about aims that concern
    the whole “evolution” are inadequate (man no longer the collaborator,
    let alone the center, of becoming).
    Nihilism as a psychological state is reached, secondly, when
    one has posited a totality, a systematization, indeed any organization
    in all events, and underneath all events, and a soul that longs
    to admire and revere has wallowed in the idea of some supreme
    form of domination and administration (-if the soul be that of
    a logician, complete consistency and real dialectic are quite sufficient
    to reconcile it to everything). Some sort of unity, some
    form of “monism”: this faith suffices to give man a deep feeling of
    standing in the context of, and being dependent on, some whole
    that is infinitely superior to him, and he sees himself as a mode of
    the deity.- “The well-being of the universal demands the devotion
    of the individual”-but behold, there is no such universal!
    At bottom, man has lost the faith in his own value when no infinitely
    valuable whole works through him; i.e., he conceived such
    a whole in order to be able to believe in his own value.
    Nihilism as psychological state has yet a third and last form.
    BOOK ONE: European Nihilism
    Given these two insights, that becoming has no goal and that
    underneath all becoming there is no grand unity in which the
    individual could immerse himself completely as in an element of
    supreme value, an escape remains: to pass sentence on this whole
    world of becoming as a deception and to invent a world beyond
    it, a true world. But as soon as man finds out how that world is
    fabricated solely from psychological needs, and how he has absolutely
    no right to it, the last form of nihilism comes into being:
    it includes disbelief in any metaphysical world and forbids itself
    any belief in a true world.7 Having reached this standpoint, one
    grants the reality of becoming as the only reality, forbids oneself
    every kind of clandestine access to afterworlds and false divinities
    -but cannot endure this world though one does not want to deny
    it.
    What has happened, at bottom? The feeling of valuelessness
    was reached with the realization that the overall character of existence
    may not be interpreted by means of the concept of “aim,”
    the concept of “unity,” or the concept of “truth.” Existence has
    no goal or end; any comprehensive unity in the plurality of events
    is lacking: the character of existence is not “true,” is false. One
    simply lacks any reason for convincing oneself that there is a
    true world. Briefly: the categories “aim,” “unity,” “being” which
    we used to project some value into the world-we pull out again;
    so the world looks valueless.

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preface nov 1887 march 1888 1 of what is great one must either be silent or speak with greatness with greatness that j leans cynically and with innocence 2 what i relate is the history of the next two centuries i describe what is coming what can no longer come differently the advent of nihilism this history can be related even now for necessity itself is at work here this future speaks even now in a hundred signs this destiny announces itself everywhere for this music of the future all ears are cocked even now for some time now our whole european culture has been moving as toward a catastrophe with a tortured tension that is growing from decade to decade restlessly violently headlong like a river that wants to reach the end that no longer reflects that is afraid to reflect 3 he that speaks here conversely has done nothing so far but reflect a philosopher and solitary by instinct who has found his advantage in standing aside and outside in patience in procrastination in staying behind as a spirit of daring and experiment that has already lost its way once in every labyrinth of the future as a soothsayer bird spirit who looks back when relating what will come as the first perfect nihilist of europe who however has even now lived through the whole of nihilism to the end leaving it behind outside himself 4 for one should make no mistake about the meaning of the title that this gospel of the future wants to bear the will to power attempt at a revaluation of all values in this formulation a countermovement finds expression regarding both principle and task a movement that in some future will take the place of this perfect nihilism but presupposes it logically and psychologi4 preface cally and certainly can come only after and out of it for why has the advent of nihilism become necessary because the values we have had hitherto thus draw their final consequence because nihilism represents the ultimate logical conclusion of our great values and ideals because we must experience nihilism before we can find out what value these values really had we require sometime new values another christian concept no less crazy has passed even more deeply into the tissue of modernity the concept of the equality of souls before god this concept furnishes the prototype of all theories of equal rights mankind was first taught to stammer the proposition of equality in a religious context and only later was it made into morality no wonder that man ended by taking it seriously taking it practically that is to say politically democratically socialistically in the spirit of the pessimism of indignation wherever responsibilities have been sought it was the instinct of revenge that sought this instinct of revenge has so mastered mankind in the course of millennia that the whole of metaphysics psychology conception of history but above all morality is impregnated with it as far as man has thought he has introduced the bacillus of revenge into things he has made even god ill with it he has deprived existence in general of its innocence namely by tracing back every state of being thus and thus to a will an intention a responsible act

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preface nov 1887 march 1888 1 of what is great one must either be silent or speak with greatness with greatness that j leans cynically and with innocence 2 what i relate is the history of the next two centuries i describe what is coming what can no longer come differently the advent of nihilism this history can be related even now for necessity itself is at work here this future speaks even now in a hundred signs this destiny announces itself everywhere for this music of the future all ears are cocked even now for some time now our whole european culture has been moving as toward a catastrophe with a tortured tension that is growing from decade to decade restlessly violently headlong like a river that wants to reach the end that no longer reflects that is afraid to reflect 3 he that speaks here conversely has done nothing so far but reflect a philosopher and solitary by instinct who has found his advantage in standing aside and outside in patience in procrastination in staying behind as a spirit of daring and experiment that has already lost its way once in every labyrinth of the future as a soothsayer bird spirit who looks back when relating what will come as the first perfect nihilist of europe who however has even now lived through the whole of nihilism to the end leaving it behind outside himself 4 for one should make no mistake about the meaning of the title that this gospel of the future wants to bear the will to power attempt at a revaluation of all values in this formulation a countermovement finds expression regarding both principle and task a movement that in some future will take the place of this perfect nihilism but presupposes it logically and psychologi4 preface cally and certainly can come only after and out of it for why has the advent of nihilism become necessary because the values we have had hitherto thus draw their final consequence because nihilism represents the ultimate logical conclusion of our great values and ideals because we must experience nihilism before we can find out what value these values really had we require sometime new values another christian concept no less crazy has passed even more deeply into the tissue of modernity the concept of the equality of souls before god this concept furnishes the prototype of all theories of equal rights mankind was first taught to stammer the proposition of equality in a religious context and only later was it made into morality no wonder that man ended by taking it seriously taking it practically that is to say politically democratically socialistically in the spirit of the pessimism of indignation wherever responsibilities have been sought it was the instinct of revenge that sought this instinct of revenge has so mastered mankind in the course of millennia that the whole of metaphysics psychology conception of history but above all morality is impregnated with it as far as man has thought he has introduced the bacillus of revenge into things he has made even god ill with it he has deprived existence in general of its innocence namely by tracing back every state of being thus and thus to a will an intention a responsible act

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