160 VIEWS TY HUGS
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THIS WAS A VERY OLD PICTURE I WAS GIVEN TO RESTORE FOR AN INDIAN FRIEND IN KERALA INDIA I WORKED HARD ON THIS ONE FOR IT WAS BARELY RECOGNIZABLE FADED BADLY SEVERE RESTORATION.. TOOK SOME TIME BUT I HAVE FINALLY COMPLETED IT ADDED OVERLAY TEXTURE AND A BIT OF GRAIN TO IT.THIS IS A 1900’s Rare Old Rare Indian Royal Mughal King With His Queen.I AM PLEASED WITH THE RESULT RESTORATION TAKES WORK ,TIME,AND PATIENCE DONE VIA PHOTOSHOP
The Mughal Empire was an imperial power that ruled most of the Indian subcontinent from the 16th to the mid-18th century and continued to exist as a considerably weaker entity until 1857. The Mughals were a Muslim dynasty of Turkic-Mongol origin, descended from Genghis Khan and Timur. At the height of their power in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, they controlled most of the subcontinent, and their lands stretched over a territory of 1.2 million square miles.
The History of the Great Mughals
The Mughal dynasty was founded by Babur (r. 1526-1530 CE), a Mongol-Turkic prince from Ferghana (modern Uzbekistan). Ousted from his lands in Central Asia, he turned his attention to the fertile lands of the Delhi Sultanate in northern India. From his base in Kabul, which he conquered in 1504, he gradually captured more territory farther east. Babur finally defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the head of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526 (despite having a much smaller army), and took his kingdom, thus establishing the beginnings of the Mughal Empure.
Babur’s son, Humayun (r. 1530-40 and 1555-56), succeeded him in 1530 but lost most of his fledgling empire to Afghan enemies and was forced to go into exile. However, his son Akbar (r. 1556-1605), defeated the Hindu king Hemu Vikramaditya, who had seized power in Delhi during Humayun’s exile in the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556, thus reestablishing Mughal rule in northern India.
Arguably the greatest of all Mughal emperors, Akbar was simultaneously an adept military leader who conquered vast swaths of northern and central India and a shrewd statesman who extended his empire by forging martial and marital alliances with his Hindu Rajput neighbors. He also was an exceptionally capable ruler, setting up efficient and durable administrative institutions of government, and a tolerant man who pursued policies of religious accommodation and harmony towards his Hindu subjects. The Mughal Empire under Akbar’s reign experienced an unprecedented period of religious peace and economic and cultural progress.
Akbar’s son Jahangir (r. 1605-1627) built on his father’s foundations of excellent administration, and his reign was similarly characterized by political and economic stability and cultural achievements. He also opened relations with the British East India Company. Jahangir was succeeded by his son, Shah Jahan (r. 1628-1658), who was a keen patron of culture. Mughal art and architecture reached its zenith under his rule. He erected many spectacular monuments, the most famous of which is the Taj Mahal in Agra (Figure 1).
A succession struggle for the Mughal throne ensued even while Shah Jahan was still alive. His third son, Aurangzeb, prevailed against his brothers and declared the ailing king incompetent to rule, putting him under house arrest. Following Shah Jahan’s death, Aurangzeb became emperor, ruling from 1658-1707. He was a notable expansionist, and the Mughal Empire reached its greatest territorial extent under Aurangzeb and included almost all of present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and most of Afghanistan. A religious conservative, Aurangzeb chose not to tread the path of religious liberalism and tolerance that his predecessors had chosen. His religious intolerance, combined with his military and political expansionism, roused dissension among the Rajputs and the Hindu Maratha states in the Deccan Peninsula; he spent the last 26 years of his life and vast amounts of wealth trying to put down rebellions in the far reaches of his vast empire.
Decline of the Mughal Empire
Aurangzeb died in 1707. His son, Bahadur Shah I, who lacked the military might and the strong leadership qualities of his father, proved unequal to governing an empire that had grown too big. Thereafter, a string of weak emperors, endless wars of succession, fiscal collapse, and persistent onslaughts from the Marathas in the south heralded the decline of the Mughal Empire. In 1739, a weakened Mughal Empire was defeated in battle by the conqueror Nader Shah, ruler of Iran, and continued to exist with only the most nominal power until 1857, when the last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah II, was overthrown by the British Raj.
The creation of a road system and a uniform currency, along with the unification of previously disparate territories, allowed for a strong economy under Mughal rule. The Mughal emperors were enthusiastic patrons of the arts, and their vast royal treasuries funded many cultural achievements. Most notable among their contributions to the culture of the Indian subcontinent were Mughal architecture and Mughal painting (Figure 2), both of which were an amalgam of Persian and Turkic styles with local styles. The Urdu language is another contribution, which continues to be the national language of Pakistan and a co-official language in India.