Sand Dollar

Poete100

Joined February 2010

Artist's Description

Found on the beach of Old Orchard Beach, Maine, USA, July 7,2013 at 6:52am

Nikon D90-Nikkor 18-200mm lens, f/9, exposure time 1/320 sec,
ISO – 200, focal length 65mm, max aperture 4,5 and no flash

The term sand dollar refers to species of extremely flattened, burrowing sea urchins belonging to the order Clypeasteroida. Some species within the order, not quite as flat, are known as sea biscuits. Related animals include the sea cucumbers and starfish

The common sand dollar, Echinarachnius parma, is widespread in ocean waters of the Northern Hemisphere, from the intertidal zone to considerable depths. It can be found in temperate and tropical zones

Sand dollars, like all members of the order Clypeasteroida, possess a rigid skeleton known as a test. The test consists of calcium carbonate plates arranged in a fivefold radial pattern.2 In living individuals the test is covered by a skin of velvet-textured spines; these spines are in turn covered with very small hairs (cilia). Coordinated movements of the spines enable sand dollars to move across the seabed. The velvety spines of live sand dollars appear in a variety of colors—green, blue, violet, or purple—depending on the species. The tests of dead individuals are often found on beaches, the textured skin missing and the skeleton bleached white by sunlight

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