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The most famous volcanic crater in the world is Diamond Head, located on the South-east Coast of O’ahu at the end of Waikiki overlooking the Pacific Ocean.
Originally named Le’ahi by the ancient Hawaiians. meaning “brow of the tuna”.
The current name was given to the crater by British sailors in the 1800’s.
When they first saw the crater at a great distance, the calcite crystals in the lava rock appeared to glimmer in the sunlight.
The sailors mistakenly thought there must be diamonds in the soil.
Diamond Head is a crater that has been extinct for 150,000 years.
The crater is 3,520 feet in diameter with a 760-foot summit.
When the United States annexed Hawaii in 1898, harbor defense became a main responsibility.
One of the major defense forts, Fort Ruger, occupied the Diamond Head Crater.
A battery of canons was located within the crater providing complete concealment and protection from invading enemies.
An observation deck was constructed at the summit in 1910 to provide target sighting and a four level underground complex was built within the walls of the crater as a command post.
A 580-foot tunnel was dug through the crater wall to provide easier access to the Fort.