Courtship is initiated when each partner rapidly rubs its beak across its back and under the wings in a characteristic manner; it looks as if each bird is preening its back. Occasionally the male during courtship feeds the female; the female sticks her beak inside that of the male, much like the motion of feeding young. They mutually preen each other on the head and neck. Soon the female assumes the copulatory position and is mounted by the male, and generally the female flies away immediately thereafter.
Taken in an industrial area on Range Road 232 north of the Yellowhead Highway, Edmonton, Alberta