Mode 2 Knowledge in Society

All change will be met with resistance; face the resistance, and it often disappears (J. Kirner & M. Rayner 1999, p. 57). This statement can also reflect how we, as a growing civilisation obtains knowledge. The human race began by using forms of mode 1 knowledge, which was passed down from generation to generation. This form of knowledge can be very ridged on how it is executed to the novice. Mode 1 knowledge is structured on a notion that knowledge must be based in various forms of objective reality. Furthermore, mode 1 can be characterised as being; ordered, fundamental, applied, individually produced and localised. This mode of knowledge is limited in its production and its accountability and quality is assured through the peer review process.
As the human race began to evolve so did the ways in which we required knowledge. In 1994 Michael Gibbons & his five colleagues; Camille Limoges, Helga Nowotny, Simon Schwartzman, Peter Scott and Martin Trow, put forward a theory of knowledge production, which resulted in the birth of Mode 2 knowledge (J. Kirk n.d., p. 1 of 6). Mode 2 knowledge can be characterised as being, transdisciplinary, global, diverse, and socially accountable. Mode 2 knowledge is finding its ways into our schools as they gradually let go of the traditional ways of learning. Most school have incorporated the learn while you earn scheme, which has the child participating in school based apprenticeships where the child goes to work half the week and to tafe or school the other half. Because our society is forever changing and growing this gives the new generation a better change at finding a job. Mode 2 knowledge is also being used in many companies as they expand and evolve. Companies such as research facilities have realised that they can achieve a better result if they employ people from different disciplines and unite them on one project to share their variety of skills. As the human race progressed so did the technology. This is why society needed to update the way knowledge was achieved. In the beginning humans used mode 1 style of knowledge, now after many centuries we are using mode2 style of knowledge, maybe in the next 100 years we might have a mode 3 style of thinking.

J.Kirner & M.Rayner 1999, The Women’s power handbook, Penguin Books, Victoria

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