Image of a golfer hitting out of a bunker (sand trap), using a sand wedge, taken at the Salisbury Golf Course, which is in Wiltshire UK
Camera Olympus E-30, Focal length 142.0,
Shutter speed 1/400s, f/6.3, ISO200
A bunker is a depression near the green or fairway that is usually filled with sand. It is difficult to hit the ball out of the bunker and entering it is therefore considered punitive to a golfer who misses the target with the previous shot. A club called a “sand wedge” is designed for extracting the ball from a bunker, a process requiring well-developed skill. After a player is done using the bunker, it is the job of either the player or that player’s caddy to rake the area of the sand disturbed during play. Specific rules of golf govern play from a bunker. For example, a player may not ground one’s club in a bunker; that is, the club cannot touch the ground prior to the swing.
There are three types of bunkers used in golf course architecture and all are designed to be impediments to the golfer’s progress toward the green. Fairway bunkers are designed primarily to gather up wayward tee shots on par 4 and par 5 holes; they are located to the sides of the fairway or even in the middle of the fairway. Greenside bunkers are designed to collect wayward approach shots on long holes and tee shots on par 3 holes; they are located near and around the green. Waste bunkers are natural sandy areas, usually very large and often found on links courses; they are not considered hazards according to the rules of golf, and so, unlike in fairway or greenside bunkers, golfers are permitted to ground a club lightly in, or remove loose impediments from, the area around the ball