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♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ series. Galicia  -  Lesser Poland  -  landscape . Brown Sugar Book Story. Music by Fryderic Chopin  - Fantasie Impromptu . Fav 1 Views: 1501 . thx!  featured in Brain Science, Brain Arts. by © Andrzej Goszcz,M.D. Ph.D
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♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ series. Galicia - Lesser Poland - landscape . Brown Sugar Book Story. Music by Fryderic Chopin - Fantasie Impromptu . Fav 1 Views: 1501 . thx! featured in Brain Science, Brain Arts. by 


♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ series.

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History

Main article: History of Galicia (Central Europe)
In 1772, Galicia was the largest part of the area annexed by Austria in the First Partition of Poland. As such, the Austrian region of Poland and what was later to become Ukraine was known as the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria to underline the Hungarian claims to the country. However, after the Third Partition of Poland, a large portion of ethnically Polish lands to the west (New or West Galicia) was also added to the province, which changed the geographical reference of the term, Galicia. Lviv (Lemberg) served as capital of Austrian Galicia, which was dominated by the Polish aristocracy, despite the fact that the population of the eastern half of the province was mostly Ukrainian, or “Ruthenian”, as they were known at the time. In addition to the Polish aristocracy and gentry who inhabited almost all parts of Galicia, and the Ruthenians in the east, there existed a large Jewish population, also more heavily concentrated in the eastern parts of the province.

During the first decades of Austrian rule, Galicia was firmly governed from Vienna, and many significant reforms were carried out by a bureaucracy staffed largely by Germans and Germanized Czechs. The aristocracy (see Counts of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria) was guaranteed its rights, but these rights were considerably circumscribed. The former serfs were no longer mere chattel, but became subjects of law and were granted certain personal freedoms, such as the right to marry without the lord’s permission. Their labour obligations were defined and limited, and they could bypass the lords and appeal to the imperial courts for justice. The Eastern Rite “Uniate” Church, which primarily served the Ruthenians, was renamed the Greek Catholic Church to bring it onto a par with the Roman Catholic Church; it was given seminaries, and eventually, a Metropolitan. Although unpopular with the aristocracy, among the common folk, Polish and Ukrainian/Ruthenian alike, these reforms created a reservoir of good will toward the emperor which lasted almost to the end of Austrian rule. At the same time, however, Austria extracted from Galicia considerable wealth and conscripted large numbers of the peasant population into its armed services.

Kingdom of Galicia 1846-1918
[edit]From 1815 to 1860
In 1815, as a result of decisions of the Congress of Vienna, the Lublin area and surrounding regions (most of the New or West Galicia) were ceded by Austria to the Congress Poland of Poland which was ruled by the Tsar, and the Ternopil Region, including the historical region of Southern Podolia, was returned to Austria from Russia which had held it since 1809. The large city of Kraków and surrounding territory, formerly also part of New or West Galicia, became the Free City of Kraków.

The 1820s and 1830s were a period of absolutist rule from Vienna, the local Galician bureaucracy still being filled by Germans and Germanized Czechs, although some of their children were already becoming Polonized. After the failure of the November insurrection in Russian Poland in 1830-31, in which a few thousand Galician volunteers participated, many Polish refugees arrived in Galicia. The latter 1830s were rife with Polish conspiratorial organizations whose work culminated in the unsuccessful Galician insurrection of 1846, easily put down by the Austrians with the help of the Galician peasantry which remained loyal to the emperor. This insurrection only occurred in the western, Polish-populated, part of Galicia, and the conflict was between patriotic, noble, rebels, and unsympathetic Polish peasants. In 1846, as one of the results of this unsuccessful revolt, the former Polish capital city of Kraków, which had been a Free City, and a republic, became a part of Galicia, administered from Lemberg.

In the 1830s, in the eastern part of Galicia, the beginnings of a national awakening occurred among the Ruthenians. A circle of activists, primarily Greek Catholic seminarians, affected by the romantic movement in Europe and the example of fellow Slavs elsewhere, especially in eastern Ukraine under the Russians, began to turn their attention to the common folk and their language. In 1837, the so-called Ruthenian Triad led by Markiian Shashkevych, published The Nymph of the Dniester, a collection of folksongs and other materials in the common Ruthenian tongue. Alarmed by such democratism, the Austrian authorities and the Greek Catholic Metropolitan banned the book.

Shako of Polish National Guard in Lviv in 1848
In 1848, revolutions occurred in Vienna and other parts of the Austrian Empire. In Lemberg, a Polish National Council, and then later, a Ukrainian, or Ruthenian Supreme Council were formed. Even before Vienna had acted, the remnants of serfdom were abolished by the Governor, Franz Stadion, in an attempt to thwart the revolutionaries. Moreover, Polish demands for Galician automomy were countered by Ruthenian demands for national equality and for a partition of the province into an Eastern, Ruthenian part, and a Western, Polish part. Eventually, Lemberg was bombarded by imperial troops and the revolution put down completely.

A decade of renewed absolutism followed, but to placate the Poles, Count Agenor Goluchowski, a conservative representative of the eastern Galician aristocracy, the so-called Podolians, was appointed Viceroy. He began to Polonize the local administration and managed to have Ruthenian ideas of partitioning the province shelved. He was unsuccessful, however, in forcing the Greek Catholic Church to shift to the use of the western or Gregorian calendar, or among Ruthenians generally, to replace the Cyrillic alphabet with the Latin alphabet.

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I first got interested in photography when I was about 6 years old, about 53 years ago. I remember when father has bought me my first camera Zorki 4.
Russian Leica copy.


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Comments

  • Julesrules
    Julesrulesalmost 4 years ago

    sublte & beautiful:-) nice work

  • Means a lot to me ;) cheers Andrzej

    – © Andrzej Goszcz,M.D. Ph.D

  • JUSTART
    JUSTARTalmost 4 years ago

    beautiful shot

  • Thank you so much ….xxx:d:d:d…. many many thanks Sylvia :D

    – © Andrzej Goszcz,M.D. Ph.D

  • Shulie1
    Shulie1almost 4 years ago

    This is really beautiful Andrew – makes a great abstract and the history is wonderful

  • Happy hippy hugglez xxx:) Your Andrew :) thank you very much :)

    – © Andrzej Goszcz,M.D. Ph.D

  • Babbler
    Babbleralmost 4 years ago

    proste i piekne

  • Bardzo dziękuje Pani co na zachód od Odry xxx: serdecznie pozdrawiam Andrzej :)

    – © Andrzej Goszcz,M.D. Ph.D

  • prettybutterfly
    prettybutterflyover 3 years ago

    lovely shot….nice colors…………

  • So happy !!!

    – © Andrzej Goszcz,M.D. Ph.D

  • heinrich
    heinrichalmost 3 years ago

    wonderful…wonderful!!

  • Thank you so much !
    That’s also mine fav !!!

    – © Andrzej Goszcz,M.D. Ph.D

  • © Andrzej Goszcz,M.D. Ph.D
    © Andrzej Gosz...over 2 years ago

    less than a minute ago
    “♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ series. Galicia – Lesser Poland – landscape . Brown Sugar Book Story. Music by Fryderic Chopin – Fantasie Impromptu . Favorites: 1 Views: : 861. thx!” was featured in Brain Science, Brain Arts.

    Thank you dear my friends and colleagues doctors !Best regards .Andre Brown Sugar M.D

  • Solomon Walker
    Solomon Walkerover 1 year ago

    a wonderful landscape image Andrew

  • thank you Sol !

    – © Andrzej Goszcz,M.D. Ph.D

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