Women Painters - ('FINE ART' only)

A group for women painters and their traditional art

PERFUME

BeClo BeClo 9133 posts

PERFUME


The perfume maker by Rodolphe Ernst

Perfume is associated with women, luxury, treat, aroma… we now use scents in our everyday life, with toiletries, make-up, cleaning products etc..

Perfumes have been known to exist in some of the earliest human civilizations, either through ancient texts or from archaeological digs.


Egyptian scene depicting the preparations of Lily perfume

The world’s first recorded chemist is considered to be a woman named Tapputi, a perfume maker who was mentioned in a cuneiform tablet from the 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamia. She distilled flowers, oil, and calamus with other aromatics then filtered and put them back in the still several times.

In 2005, archaeologists uncovered what are believed to be the world’s oldest perfumes in Pyrgos,Cyprus. The perfumes date back more than 4,000 years. They were discovered in an ancient perfumery.

Others were found too in other parts of the world or within references such as fresques or paintings, as this one found in Pompeii, Cupid making perfume

Perfume types reflect the concentration of aromatic compounds in a solvent, which in fine fragrance is typically ethanol or a mix of water and ethanol. Various sources differ considerably in the definitions of perfume types. The intensity and longevity of a perfume is based on the concentration, intensity and longevity of the aromatic compounds (natural essential oils / perfume oils) used: As the percentage of aromatic compounds increases, so does the intensity and longevity of the scent created. Specific terms are used to describe a fragrance approximate concentration by percent/volume of perfume oil, which are typically vague or imprecise.

Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds


A list of common terms (Perfume-Classification) is as follows:

Perfume extract, or simply perfume (extrait): 15-40% aromatic compounds
Esprit de Parfum : 15-30% aromatic compounds, a seldom used strength concentration in between EdP and perfume
Eau de Parfum , Parfum de Toilette : 10-20% (typical ~15%) aromatic compounds, sometimes listed as “eau de perfume” or “millésime.” Parfum de Toilette is a less common term that is generally analogous to Eau de Parfum
Eau de Toilette : 5-15% (typical ~10%) aromatic compounds
Eau de Cologne : Chypre citrus type perfumes with 3-8% (typical ~5%) aromatic compounds. “Original Eau de Cologne” is a registered trademark.


Original Eau de Cologne flacon 1811


While we are using perfume as an everyday adopted ingredient, part of our lives, there are some sombre sides attached to this luxury!

Carcinogenicity
There is scientific evidence that nitro-musks such as musk xylene can cause cancer while common ingredients, like certain polycyclic synthetic musks, can disrupt the balance of hormones in the human body (endocrine disruption). Some natural aromatics, such as oakmoss absolutes, contain allergens and carcinogenic compounds.

Toxicity
Certain chemicals found in perfume are often toxic, at least for small insects if not for humans. For example the compound Tricyclodecenyl allyl ether is often found in synthetic perfumes and has insect repellent property.

Species endangerment
The demands for aromatic materials like sandalwood, agarwood, musk has led to the endangerment of these species as well as illegal trafficking and harvesting.


THE MUSK DEER, is one of the species that suffer to reward our vanity!

Deer musk is a substance with a persistent odor obtained from a gland of the male musk deer situated between its back/rectal area. The substance has been extensively used as a perfume fixative, incense material, and medicine, since ancient times. It was and still is one of the most expensive animal products in the world. The name originates from the Sanskrit word muṣká meaning “testicle”.
Although more commonly referred to as “musk”, the term itself is often used to describe a wide variety of “musky” substances from other animals such as the African Civet (“Civet musk”) or various synthetic musks whose compound exhibits some character of deer musk.

Musk deer resemble small deer with a stocky build, and hind legs longer than their front legs. They are approximately 80 to 100 centimetres (31 to 39 in) long, 50 to 70 centimetres (20 to 28 in) tall at the shoulder, and weigh between 7 and 17 kilograms (15 and 37 lb). The feet of musk deer are adapted for climbing in rough terrain. Like the Chinese water deer, a cervid, they have no antlers, but the males do have enlarged upper canines, forming sabre-like tusks. The dental formula is similar to that of true deer:
The musk gland is found only in adult males. It lies in a sac located between thegenitals and the umbilicus, and its secretions are most likely used to attract mates
Musk deers have been hunted for their scent glands, which can fetch up to $45,000/kg on the black market. It is rumored that ancient royalty wore the scent of the musk deer and that it is an aphrodisiac.
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SOURCES FOR PRODUCTION OF PERFUME

OTHER ANIMAL SOURCE

Ambergris: Lumps of oxidized fatty compounds, whose precursors were secreted and expelled by the sperm whale.
Castoreum: Obtained from the odorous sacs of the North American beaver
Civet: Also called Civet Musk, this is obtained from the odorous sacs of the civets, (the mongoose)
*Honeycomb: From the honeycomb of the honeybee. Both beeswax and honey can be solvent extracted to produce an absolute. Beeswax is extracted with ethanol and the ethanol evaporated to produce beeswax absolute.

PLANT SOURCES
Plants have long been used in perfumery as a source of essential oils and aroma compounds
A plant can offer more than one source of aromatics, for instance the aerial portions and seeds of coriander have remarkably different odors from each other.Orange leaves, blossoms etc..
Bark: Commonly used barks includes cinnamon and cascarilla. The fragrant oil in sassafras root bark is also used either directly or purified for its main constituent.
Flowers and blossoms: Undoubtedly the largest and most common source of perfume aromatics. Includes the flowers of several species of rose and jasmine…

Fruits: Fresh fruits such as apples, strawberries, cherries unfortunately do not yield the expected odors when extracted; if such fragrance notes are found in a perfume, they are synthetic. Notable exceptions include litsea cubeba, vanilla, and juniper berry. The most commonly used fruits yield their aromatics from the rind; they include citrus such as oranges, lemons, and limes. Although grapefruit rind is still used for aromatics, more and more commercially used grapefruit aromatics are artificially synthesized since the natural aromatic contains sulfuran its degradation product is quite unpleasant in smell.
Leaves and twigs: Commonly used for perfumery are lavender leaf, patchouli, sage, violets, rosemary, and citrus leaves. Sometimes leaves are valued for the “green” smell they bring to perfumes, examples of this include hay and tomato leaf.
Resins: Valued since antiquity, resins have been widely used in incense and perfumery.
Roots, rhizomes and bulbs: Commonly used terrestrial portions in perfumery include iris rhizomes, various rhizomes of the ginger family.
Seeds: Commonly used seeds include tonka bean, carrot seed, coriander, caraway, cocoa, nutmeg, mace, cardamom, and anise.
Woods: Highly important in providing the base notes to a perfume, wood oils and distillates are indispensable in perfumery. Commonly used woods include sandalwood, rosewood, agarwood, birch, cedar, juniper, and pine. These are used in the form of macerations or dry-distilled (rectified) forms.

Rose picking in Bulgaria 1870

Pot Pourri 1899


While working on this feature, I have contacted David Pybus, known by the media as “The Indiana Jones of the scent business”
David is qualified in chemistry, has lived and worked on three continents, travelling to over one hundred countries. His fascination with archeology and history, coupled with a long business career in the fragrance industry has made of him one of the most fascinating aromer

David’s first taste of lost perfumes was during a 3 years visit to Mexico, then to Egypt, Italy and Cyprus, working with others to bring again to the light of day the lost aromas of ancient civilisations.

He has recreated four most wonderful perfumes.

PYXIS (the lost perfume of Pompeii) -
NENUFAR, the sacred scent of Cleopatra
ANKH, Tutankhamen’s aroma of intrigue
MAYA, Mystic scent of the Americas

HOW DID HE CAPTURE THESE FRAGRANCES?

perfumes are ephemeral beings. Open the stoppers and they are lost forever but they can be frozen in time by disaster such as the iceberg than sank the Titanic, the eruption of Vesuvius which has destroyed Pompeii and the earthquake which ruined Pyrgos Mavroraki in Cyprus
Chemically finger print or “Aromaprint” can be recreated

Below is a logo, created by himself, displaying what has been included in the creation of these perfumes (no animal there)


A big thank you to David Pybus for letting me use his Copyright.


If our members wanted to produce their own perfume, you can view this video Perfume made from home!


NUMEROUS PAINTINGS HAVE BEEN CREATED DEPICTING LADIES’ TOILETTE, OR LADIES WITH FLOWERS…


Woman with roses


Berthe Morisot A woman at her toilette 1875


Georges Seurat – Woman powdering herself

!
Le billet doux by Fragonard
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Congratulations to all our featured members chosen by Mada and myself on behalf of the team Women Painters.

 

Catalog


Roses and more roses
by Beatrice Cloake

Pauline’s Roses
by Karin Zeller

VIOLETS LOVE GIFT
by kimberlysdream

The Tree
by Anna Ewa Miarczynska

Lemons. Pen and wash. Framed. 42×32cm
by Elizabeth Moore Golding

Velvet
by Vandy Massey

Marilyn Monroe
by Slaveika Aladjova

Glorious
by Alga Washington

Another Marilyn
by jamie joy

the naturalist
by LisaMM

Irises
by Tania Vasylenko

Aucuparia
by elisabetta trevisan

 

 

Presenting, “Perfume”, featured works by Women Painters

 

 


Roses and more roses
by Beatrice Cloake


Pauline’s Roses
by Karin Zeller


VIOLETS LOVE GIFT
by kimberlysdream


The Tree
by Anna Ewa Miarczynska


Lemons. Pen and wash. Framed. 42×32cm
by Elizabeth Moore Golding


Velvet
by Vandy Massey


Marilyn Monroe
by Slaveika Aladjova


Glorious
by Alga Washington


Another Marilyn
by jamie joy


the naturalist
by LisaMM


Irises
by Tania Vasylenko


Aucuparia
by elisabetta trevisan

BeClo BeClo 9133 posts

A big thank you to all our members for their so wonderful works on display in our group and Congratulations to you all for your features.

Thank you to Madelena who has worked with me and for the feature of my work! It is a brilliant day!

F.A. Moore F.A. Moore 37046 posts

I had to read the article thoroughly again; because it is fascinating with its lists of aromatic terms; animal and plant sources; the note about Tapputi of Mesopotamia; and the information about David Pybus (whose surname, “Pybus” is very similar to “Pyrgos”, the city in Cyprus with the first known perfumes). I also love the old oil painting you showed, Pot Pourri 1899, by Edwin Austin Abbey (American).

That brings me to the collection of works shown by women painters. Your Roses and more roses, Beatrice, as selected by Mada, sets the stage for fragrant flowers which follow— beautiful. I note Anna’s fabulous painting of the The Tree (as woman)— how perfectly that brings to focus your mention of various barks in perfume making. Lisa’s the naturalist is one that immediately brings to mind the passionate research of “The Indiana Jones of Scent”, David Pybus; but also the natural curiosity of the “nature’s child” dwelling in each of us. And the Marilyn paintings are, in context, a tribute to the sensuality that women feel when wearing a beautiful scent that seems “just made for them”.

Each painting reminds one of the wonder and love of beautiful delicate things of nature which touch our senses in daily life. Congratulations to Elisabetta Trevisan, Tania Vasylenko, Lisa MM, Jamie Joy, Alga Washington, Slaveika Aladjova, Vandy Massey, Elisabeth Moore Golding, Anna Ewa Miarczynska, Kimberly, Karin Zeller, and to you, Beatrice Cloake.

BeClo BeClo 9133 posts

Thank you Frannie for your wonderful back up on this! I agree with you that all chosen artists works have brought magic to the topic!

How fascinating that you have found a similarity with Pybus and Pyrgos…leading to perfume!

F.A. Moore F.A. Moore 37046 posts

Beatrice, I wonder if he has put it together.

BeClo BeClo 9133 posts

Will find out Frannie. I have sent him a message with the link for this page… he might come and visit it :)

Madalena Lobao-Tello Madalena Lobao... 7012 posts

Which of us did not fall rendered with a perfume that speaks to our soul and body?. Many of our memories are associated with perfumes…

  • Beatrice
    Congratulations!!
    I really enjoyed reading your article. You made a fabulous research and brought us an article very well done and illustrated.
    I did not know anything about the animal nature of some perfumes. I learned a lot and I made the determination to never buy perfume that threaten the life of a living being.
    I would love to experience one of the perfumes of your “archaeologist of perfumes”
  • The selected works are all of high quality….really enjoy admiring great talent in this group. There are so many great painters here, is really hard to decide a favorite.
    Congratulations to Elisabetta Trevisan, Tania Vasylenko, Lisa MM, Jamie Joy, Alga Washington, Slaveika Aladjova, Vandy Massey, Elisabeth Moore Golding, Anna Ewa Miarczynska, Kimberly, Karin Zeller, and Beatrice

.

BeClo BeClo 9133 posts

“Many of our memories are associated with perfumes…”
This is so true Madalena!
Thank you for your kind words to our members and myself :)

Karin Zeller Karin Zeller 138 posts

Congratulations, Beatrice, on your excellent article about perfume. It’s a fascinating topic, and deserves to be read. Also enjoyed all the beautiful images that you selected. Thank you for choosing my humble painting of roses as part of this feature. Congratulations to all the featured artists.

F.A. Moore F.A. Moore 37046 posts

Congratulations, @Karin!

Lynda Robinson Lynda Robinson 3148 posts

Congratulations to all the featured artists for their really beautiful works associated with perfume, and congratulations to Beatrice and Mada for compiling such an interesting and intriguing feature page! That information about David Pybus is absolutely fascinating! You have also raised awareness of the use of animals to make perfume. This is such an eye opener!

Terri Maddock Terri Maddock 3199 posts

Wonderful research & article Beatrice! The gallery of features are beautiful too – congratulations!

Madalena Lobao-Tello Madalena Lobao... 7012 posts
  • Lynda and Frannie :)

Thank you so much your support!!

Madalena Lobao-Tello Madalena Lobao... 7012 posts
  • Karin
    Congratulations!
    Your roses are wonderful!!
  • Terri
    Many thanks for stopping by!!
BeClo BeClo 9133 posts

. Thank you Karin for your lovely painting. It matches perfectly our perfume topic. Glad you enjoyed it, thank you :)

. Terri, thank you so much

. Lynda, thank you, I am so glad that awareness about animals suffering for our treats, has been raised….

LisaMM LisaMM 1482 posts

Thank you so very much for including my work in this exceptional selection of featured work.

Once again, I must extend my apologies in not having time…at this present moment….to read the narrative, one that is of great interest to me…but i will return as soon as i can to read and offer my views to this forum. I value and appreciate the time and effort put into these forums, so I like to participate :-)

Congratulations to all artists.

Back soon :-)))

Elizabeth Moore Golding Elizabeth Moor... 156 posts

Thanks Beatrice for such an interesting article. At first I thought, lemons,why include them in such a feature, then reminded myself that my favourite perfumes and shower gels are usually citrus based – bergamot, lime, orange and lemon. And these particular lemons from our tree, which I have painted here, although acidic, of course, have a ‘sweet’ flavour about them and a wonderful aroma, especially when the skin is scratched.

Loved the classic paintings you have found to illustrate your article, especially the Berthe Morizot. Also loved that musk is really ‘testicle’…

Thanks also for the reminder that we can make our own perfumes and know that we are not testing them on animals! As a vegetarian, an important part of my life. Congrats also to the other artists whose lovely works are amongst mine.

BeClo BeClo 9133 posts

Elizabeth, Congratulations for your so lovely painting. It was the perfect choice (by Madalena) to complement the topic.

Thank you so much for contributing with your personal infos and your lovely back-up.

Anna Miarczynska Anna Miarczynska 301 posts

Congratulations to all artists!!!!! Thank you Beatrice and Madalena for your work and support!!!

BeClo BeClo 9133 posts

Thank you Anna for your contribution and beautiful work of art! :)